What is Fontan in cardiology?
Cardiac Center The heart no longer receives deoxygenated blood from the veins. Instead, this blood flows directly to the lungs. The heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body. This is called Fontan circulation.
What does the Fontan do?
The Fontan procedure refers to any surgical procedure that leads to systemic flow of venous blood to the lungs without passing through a ventricle. In 1971, Fontan and Baudet (1) described a surgical procedure for repair of tricuspid atresia that built on experimental and clinical research from the 1940s.
When is Fontan performed?
The Fontan procedure is the third stage of the repair. It is done when the child is between 18 months and 2 years of age. A heart catheterization is done before the Fontan.
When does Fontan fenestration close?
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Fenestration Closure via Heart Catheterization is necessary is when a large fenestration or hole in the Fontan baffle is closed. It is done during a heart catheterization six to twelve months after the Fontan procedure.
What is Fontan fenestration?
Fenestration closure after a Fontan operation is a procedure to close the hole between your child’s heart and the tunnel that takes oxygen-poor blood from the body to the lungs. The procedure is done in the heart catheterization lab. There is a small risk that your child will have complications from the procedure.
How long does a Fontan last?
Since the Fontan procedure requires open heart surgery, your toddler will be on a heart-lung machine to temporarily take over blood circulation and breathing. The procedure will last about five hours.
How long can a Fontan last?
Conclusions: Over 80% of patients who survive Fontan surgery will be alive at 20 years. Developing late sequelae including protein losing enteropathy, ventricular dysfunction or requiring a pacemaker predict a higher risk of late death.
What is a fenestration procedure?
In 1913, Jenkins (6) first described an innovative type of surgery, which he called fenestration. This surgery consisted of the creation of a window in the vestibule or in the lateral semicircular canal, allowing the transmission of sound waves from the middle ear to the perilymph.
What is disc fenestration?
Intervertebral disc (IVD) fenestration involves the mechanical removal of the nucleus pulposus (NP) through a window, or fenestration, created in the annulus fibrosus (AF). Fenestration has been advocated to reduce the rate of early and late recurrence of disc herniation in dogs affected by this condition.
What causes dehiscence?
The causes of dehiscence are similar to the causes of poor wound healing and include ischemia, infection, increased abdominal pressure, diabetes, malnutrition, smoking, and obesity.  Superficial dehiscence is when the wound edges begin to separate and by increased bleeding or drainage at the site.
What happens during a Fontan procedure?
During the Fontan procedure, the surgeon: Disconnects the inferior vena cava (IVC) from the heart and connects it to the pulmonary artery using a conduit (tube). Makes a small hole between the conduit and the right atrium. This hole (or fenestration) lets some blood still flow back to the heart.
What is Fontan circulation?
The “Fontan circulation” refers to this configuration where the single ventricle pumps blood returning from the lungs to the body, and the blood returning from the body travels to the lungs by direct blood vessel connections without a pumping chamber.
How does the heart pick up oxygen after the Fontan procedure?
This lets the blood pick up oxygen without having to pass through the heart. In babies with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, low-oxygen blood from the lower part of the body mixes with high-oxygen blood. After the Fontan procedure, low-oxygen blood and high-oxygen blood no longer mix. This lets the heart deliver only high-oxygen blood to the body.
Why is a Fontan not successful in the pulmonary artery?
The pulmonary arteries must grow well without stenosis (narrowing) and must remain low resistance (or be very relaxed). If the pulmonary arteries are narrow or if the resistance in these vessels is high, blood will not be able to flow into them without a pump, so the Fontan will not be successful.