## What is the goal of estimation?

The objective of estimation is to approximate the value of a population parameter on the basis of a sample statistic. For example, the sample mean¯X is used to estimate the population mean µ.

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## What is Z estimator?

5 that Z-estimators are approximate zeros of data-dependent functions. These data-dependent functions, denoted Ψn, are maps between a possibly infinite dimensional normed parameter space Θ and a normed space L, where the respective norms are · and ·L. The Ψn are frequently called estimating equations.

**What are the criteria of good estimators?**

Properties of Good Estimator

- Unbiasedness. An estimator is said to be unbiased if its expected value is identical with the population parameter being estimated.
- Consistency.
- Efficiency.
- Sufficiency.

### What is the purpose of GMM?

The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a statistical method that combines observed economic data with the information in population moment conditions to produce estimates of the unknown parameters of this economic model.

### What are the objectives of estimation and costing?

The purpose of cost estimation is to predict the quantity, cost, and price of the resources required to complete a job within the project scope. Cost estimates are used to bid on new business from prospective clients and to inform your job and budget planning process.

**What makes an estimator efficient?**

An efficient estimator is characterized by a small variance or mean square error, indicating that there is a small deviance between the estimated value and the “true” value.

#### What are the main reasons to use the generalized methods of the moment GMM estimator?

GMM generalizes the method of moments (MM) by allowing the number of moment conditions to be greater than the number of parameters. Using these extra moment conditions makes GMM more efficient than MM. When there are more moment conditions than parameters, the estimator is said to be overidentified.

#### What is the role of Gaussian distribution in GMM?

Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) assume that there are a certain number of Gaussian distributions, and each of these distributions represent a cluster. Hence, a Gaussian Mixture Model tends to group the data points belonging to a single distribution together.

**What is the importance of estimating?**

The purpose of estimating is to determine the cost of a project before you actually do the work. Estimating must take into consideration variable job conditions, the cost of materials, labor cost, labor availability, direct job expenses, and management costs (overhead).

## What are the duties of an estimator?

analysing plans, bills of quantities and other project documentation in order to estimate costs. researching, sourcing, negotiating and obtaining the best prices and quotes from suppliers and subcontractors. analysing data that can affect costs (such as currency exchange rates and the company’s productivity rates)

## What is a good estimation?

Summarizing, a good estimate is one that supports a project manager in successful project management and successful project completion. A good estimation method is thus an estimation method that provides such support, without violating other project objectives such as project management overhead.

**What is the most efficient estimator?**

2. Efficiency: The most efficient estimator among a group of unbiased estimators is the one with the smallest variance. For example, both the sample mean and the sample median are unbiased estimators of the mean of a normally distributed variable. However, X has the smallest variance.

### What are the three important characteristics of a good estimator?

Point Estimates The point estimate is the single best value. A good estimator must satisfy three conditions: Unbiased: The expected value of the estimator must be equal to the mean of the parameter. Consistent: The value of the estimator approaches the value of the parameter as the sample size increases.

### Why GMM is better than K-Means?

The first visible difference between K-Means and Gaussian Mixtures is the shape the decision boundaries. GMs are somewhat more flexible and with a covariance matrix ∑ we can make the boundaries elliptical, as opposed to circular boundaries with K-means. Another thing is that GMs is a probabilistic algorithm.

**How is GMM different from K-Means clustering?**

K-Means and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) are unsupervised clustering techniques. K-Means groups data points using distance from the cluster centroid [8] – [16]. GMM uses a probabilistic assignment of data points to clusters [17] – [19]. Each cluster is described by a separate Gaussian distribution.