What is the surgical management of portal hypertension?

What is the surgical management of portal hypertension?

Surgical decompression can be achieved with total or partial portal systemic shunts or by selection variceal decompression. All types of surgical shunts provide greater than 90% control of variceal bleeding. Their difference lies in the degree of portal flow diversion.

What is a shunt in portal vein?

Portacaval shunting is major surgery. It involves a large cut (incision) in the belly area (abdomen). The surgeon then makes a connection between the portal vein (which supplies most of the liver’s blood) and the inferior vena cava (the vein that drains blood from most of the lower part of the body.)

What is TIP procedure?

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure that involves inserting a stent (tube) to connect the portal veins to adjacent blood vessels that have lower pressure. This relieves the pressure of blood flowing through the diseased liver and can help stop bleeding and fluid back up.

What is Sarfeh shunt?

The portocaval H-graft interposition shunt (SARFEH) is widely used to preserve a hepatopetal flow of about 80% due to the 8-mm diameter of the PTFE graft used [14]. The encephalopathy rate is low at only 5%, and rebleeding occurs in 5%, with a graft patency of about 95% over 7 years [18, 39].

What is selective shunt?

Selective shunts provide selective decompression of gastroesophageal varices to control bleeding while at the same time maintaining portal hypertension to maintain portal flow to the liver.

What is Mesocaval shunt?

Mesocaval shunts are stent grafts placed by interventional radiologists between the mesenteric system, most often the superior mesenteric vein, and the inferior vena cava. This allows flow to bypass the congested hepatic system, reducing portal pressures.

What is liver shunt surgery?

A portacaval shunt is a major surgical procedure that’s used to create a new connection between blood vessels in your liver. Your doctor will recommend this procedure if you have severe liver problems.

How does a liver shunt work?

By providing an artificial path for blood traveling from the intestines, through the liver, and back to the heart, TIPS reduces the pressure in the varices and prevents them from rupturing and bleeding. There are several types of shunts that are placed surgically.

What are the side effects of TIPS procedure?

Possible risks with this procedure are:

  • Damage to blood vessels.
  • Fever.
  • Hepatic encephalopathy (a disorder that affects concentration, mental function, and memory, and may lead to coma)
  • Infection, bruising, or bleeding.
  • Reactions to medicines or the dye.
  • Stiffness, bruising, or soreness in the neck.

How long does a TIPS last?

TIPS is done by an interventional radiologist, a doctor who specializes in procedures that are guided by X-rays or other imaging. The entire procedure usually takes about 2 to 3 hours, but it can last as long as 5 to 6 hours.

What is a Rex shunt procedure?

Meso-Rex shunt (MRS) is a surgical procedure that restores physiological portal venous blood flow to the liver by using a graft to connect the superior mesenteric vein and the left portal vein within the Rex recess, and can relieve variceal bleeding and other complications associated with EHPVO.

How is a portosystemic shunt diagnosed?

Common diagnostic tests include:

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and Serum Chemistries. Typical abnormal findings include mild anemia or smaller than normal red blood cells (microcytosis), low blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and albumin, and increases in liver enzymes (AST, ALT).
  2. Urinalysis.
  3. Bile Acid Test.

How serious is portal hypertension?

Portal hypertension is fairly uncommon, but when it occurs, it most often occurs in older adults and may result in death, if untreated. How does portal hypertension occur? Portal hypertension occurs when there is an obstruction of blood flow through the liver, and pressure rises within the portal vein.

What are clinical signs of portal hypertension?

Hematemesis or melena – May indicate gastroesophageal variceal bleeding or bleeding from portal gastropathy

  • Mental status changes – Such as lethargy,increased irritability,and altered sleep patterns; these may indicate the presence of portosystemic encephalopathy
  • Increasing abdominal girth – May indicate ascites formation
  • What are the postsinusoidal causes of portal hypertension?

    The presinusoidal block prevents transmission of the elevated portal pressure to the wedged hepatic vein. The overwhelming basis for sinusoidal and postsinusoidal portal hypertension is cirrhosis, particularly that due to alcohol. Postsinusoidal hypertension can again be divided into intrahepatic and posthepatic. Dec 7, 2017.

    Why does splenomegaly occur in portal hypertension?

    In this condition, splenomegaly is not only caused by portal congestion, but it is mainly due to tissue hyperplasia and fibrosis. The increase in spleen size is followed by an increase in splenic blood flow, which participates in portal hypertension actively congesting the portal system. Endothelins / biosynthesis


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