What are environmental factors of tuberculosis?
For centuries, TB has been linked anecdotally with environmental risk factors that go hand-in-hand with poverty: indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, malnutrition, overcrowded living conditions, and excessive alcohol use.
What factors affect tuberculosis?
Diabetes, alcohol, malnutrition, tobacco smoke, and indoor air pollution are factors which impact a larger section of the population and accelerate progression to TB disease. This paper aims to summarize the risk factors which contribute to TB infection and disease at both individual and population level.
Where is tuberculosis found in the environment?
Transmission of M tuberculosis from the environment is possible as TB bacilli have been isolated from sputum or carpet up to 19 days, wood over 88 days, and moist and dry soil up to 4 weeks following contamination. Furthermore, not only can M tuberculosis survive in soil, but it also remains virulent.
Is tuberculosis caused by water pollution?
The authors posit that contamination of water sources with M tuberculosis may occur through expectoration. However, since both human stool and urine can harbor M tuberculosis, sewage contamination of water sources could potentially be another source.
What are the social factors of tuberculosis?
The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is strongly influenced by social and economic development and health-related risk factors such as undernutrition, diabetes, HIV infection, alcohol use disorders and smoking.
What are the social factors causing the high prevalence of TB?
Socio-economic factors, such as poor living conditions, homelessness, incarceration, poverty, tobacco use and alcohol abuse, place people who use drugs at higher risk for developing TB . Drug use was described as an important TB risk factor for LTBI and incidence of TB disease whether drugs were injected or not.
Can you get TB from wastewater?
The potential risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex found in wastewater during wastewater treatment processes. The reported MTBC in treated and untreated wastewater could result in infections for different populations that may be exposed either directly or indirectly .
Who is most at risk of tuberculosis?
People at high risk for Tuberculosis (TB) exposure and infection include:
- Close contacts of persons exposed to contagious cases of TB.
- Foreign-born persons, including children, who have immigrated within the last 5 years from areas that have a high TB incidence.
What socio economic factors are associated with the increased prevalence of tuberculosis?
Risk of TB is high among population living in poverty, low socioeconomic groups, low income, immune-suppressed (including AIDS), and extreme age (old age and children) groups, certain ethnicity, migrants, and those exposed to animals (Mycobacterium bovis) [1, 2].
Who is at high risk for TB?
People at high risk for Tuberculosis (TB) exposure and infection include: Close contacts of persons exposed to contagious cases of TB. Foreign-born persons, including children, who have immigrated within the last 5 years from areas that have a high TB incidence.
What populations are most at risk for tuberculosis?
How does weather affect tuberculosis?
The association between humidity and TB is strong and immediate at low humidity, but the risk decreases with increasing lag. Using the optimum weather values corresponding to the lowest risk of infection, the risk of TB is highest at low temperature, low humidity and low rainfall.
How does climate change affect tuberculosis?
The rise in extreme climatic events induces population displacement resulting in a greater number of vulnerable and risk populations of tuberculosis. It creates a conducive environment of tuberculosis transmission and development of active tuberculosis and disrupts tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services.