How does the dengue virus attack the body?
As the infected monocytes and macrophages travel through the lymphatic system, the dengue virus spreads throughout the body. During its journey, the dengue virus infects more cells, including those in the lymph nodes and bone marrow, macrophages in both the spleen and liver, and monocytes in the blood.
What is the pathophysiology of dengue virus?
Severe dengue most commonly occurs among patients with secondary DENV infections and infants with primary infections. The most widely-cited hypothesis for the pathogenesis of severe dengue is antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).
What are the virulence factors of dengue virus?
Virulence factors The dengue virus genome is about 11000 bases that codes for structural proteins and nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5), with short non-coding regions on both the 5′ and 3′ ends.
What is the vector of dengue disease?
Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The primary vectors that transmit the disease are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. The virus responsible for causing dengue, is called dengue virus (DENV).
What cells do dengue virus attack?
Monocytes/Macrophages Since dengue viral antigens are detectable in adherent cells obtained from the peripheral blood of dengue patients, monocytes and/or macrophages have been an assumptive target cell for more than three decades.
How does dengue infect host cells?
The dengue virus attaches to the surface of a host cell and enters the cell by a process called endocytosis. Once deep inside the cell, the virus fuses with the endosomal membrane and is released into the cytoplasm. The virus particle comes apart, releasing the viral genome.
What is the pathophysiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever?
The pathophysiology of the severe forms of dengue may be related to sequential infection with different serotypes, variations in virus virulence, interaction of the virus with environmental and host factors or a combination of these factors.
What is the vector of the dengue virus male or female?
Dengue viruses are transmitted by the bite of an infected female Aedes (subgenus Stegomyia) mosquito. Both males and females require nectar for energy.
Why does Aedes mosquito spread dengue?
The answer why aedes is primary vector may be the fact that it is very aggressive. There are several biological factors of vector which suits to the pathogen like dengue virus, They have adapted in Aedes by continuous process of picked by mosquitoes.
Why does dengue virus attack platelets?
Dengue induces platelet activation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death through mechanisms that involve DC-SIGN and caspases. Platelet activation and apoptosis modulate inflammatory responses in dengue. Platelets mediate increased endothelium permeability in dengue through NLRP3-inflammasome activation.
How does dengue virus replicate?
It is composed of the viral genome and capsid proteins surrounded by an envelope and a shell of proteins. After infecting a host cell, the dengue virus hijacks the host cell’s machinery to replicate the viral RNA genome and viral proteins. Newly synthesized dengue viruses can go on to infect other host cells.
Is dengue virus DNA or RNA?
The dengue virus genome is a single strand of RNA. It is referred to as positive-sense RNA because it can be directly translated into proteins.
What is genetic material of dengue virus?
Genome. The DENV genome is about 11000 bases of positive-sense, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) that codes for three structural proteins (capsid protein C, membrane protein M, envelope protein E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5).
What is the difference between dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever?
DHF is a more severe form of dengue. Initial symptoms are the same as dengue but are followed by bleeding problems such as easy bruising, skin hemorrhages, bleeding from the nose or gums, and possible bleeding of the internal organs. DHF is very rare.
Why do platelets decrease in dengue?
The number of platelets in dengue fever decreases as it suppresses the bone marrow (which is the site of platelet production). The platelet count in dengue fever decreases because the blood cells are affected by the virus that causes platelet damage.
Why dengue is transmitted by the female mosquito?
Dengue is spread through the bite of the female mosquito (Aedes aegypti). The mosquito becomes infected when it takes the blood of a person infected with the virus. After about one week, the mosquito can then transmit the virus while biting a healthy person.
In which stage of the vector life cycle is dengue transmitted?
Once the virus enters the mosquito’s system in the blood meal, the virus spreads through the mosquito’s body over a period of eight to twelve days. After this period, the infected mosquito can transmit the dengue virus to another person while feeding.
What is vertical transmission of dengue?
Vertical transmission provides a possible mechanism supporting virus dengue persistence in the absence of a recognized host and/or under unfavorable conditions for mosquito activity . A literature review is performed on the presence of natural vertical transmission of DENV in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus .
What is the difference between normal mosquito and dengue mosquito?
Dengue mosquitoes are classified under the genus Aedes, and are known to carry dengue causing particles in their saliva. Normal mosquitoes belong to the class Culicidae, and they do not carry dengue causing particles. They have characteristic black and white markings on their bodies and legs.
What is dengue virus (DV) infection?
Dengue virus (DV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is endemic to many tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, the annual incidence of DV infection has increased worldwide, including in Korea, due to global warming and increased global travel.
What is the global incidence of dengue virus infection?
Dengue virus (DV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is endemic to many tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, the annual incidence of DV infection has increased worldwide, including in Korea, due to global warming and increased global travel. We therefore sought to characterize the molecular and evo …
Where to study the evolution of dengue virus (DENV)?
1 Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Studies of the evolution of dengue virus (DENV) have blossomed during the last 20 years, in part due to the increasing availability of viral gene sequence data.
What is the genotype of DV-1 and DV-4?
We used phylogenetic analysis based on the full coding region to classify isolates of DV-1 in Korea into genotype I (43251, KP406802), genotype IV (KP406803), and genotype V (KP406801). In addition, we found that strains of DV-4 belonged to genotype I (KP406806) and genotype II (43257).