What are the clinical features of pneumococcal pneumonia?
Classic pneumococcal pneumonia often develops in older children and adults. Sometimes preceded by a viral illness, there is acute onset of high fever, rigors, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, malaise, and fatigue. Patients typically appear ill and may appear anxious.
What does the word pneumococcal mean?
Pneumococcal [noo-muh-KOK-uhl] disease is a name for any infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Pneumococcal infections can range from ear and sinus infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections.
What is the colony morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae?
COLONY MORPHOLOGY: Pneumococci produce pneumolysin, which breaks down hemoglobin into a green pigment that can be observed as a large green zone surrounding S. pneumoniae colonies growing on blood-agar plates.
What is the pathophysiology of pneumococcal pneumonia?
Pneumococcal pneumonia is the explosive pulmonary and systemic inflammatory consequence of a disrupted host-pathogen relationship normally compartmentalised and optimally balanced as nasopharyngeal carriage. Pathogen, host and environmental factors combine to allow proliferation of pneumococci in the alveolar space.
What does pneumococcal look like?
Symptoms include a stiff neck, a headache, confusion, sensitivity to light, and a fever. However, symptoms can vary, and some may not appear at all. Pneumonia: This is a serious lung disease. Symptoms include chest pain, difficulty breathing, a cough, a fever, and chills.
How is pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosed?
Doctors can use a urine test to help make a diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Doctors usually diagnose ear and sinus infections based on a history and physical exam findings that support pneumococcal infection. Doctors use a lumbar puncture to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the morphology of Streptococcus bacteria?
Morphology: Spherical, ovoid, or cocci shaped. Often occur in pairs or chains when grown in liquid media.
What is the shape of Streptococcus pneumoniae?
Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with more than 100 known serotypes. Most S. pneumoniae serotypes can cause disease, but only a minority of serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections.
What is a common diagnostic tool for pneumococcal pneumonia?
Chest X-ray (CXR) remains the reference standard for diagnosis of pneumonia syndrome, and should be used when available, especially for hospitalized patients. Blood culture is insensitive but can provide a specific aetiological diagnosis and should be used when available.