Why immature teratoma is malignant?
Immature teratomas are uncommon malignant ovarian neoplasms that comprise less than 1% of ovarian germ cell tumors. Immature and embryonic tissue from all three cell lines may be present within immature teratomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tissue is the most common malignant tissue subtype.
What is metastatic teratoma?
Metastatic mature teratoma (MMT) is a common residual tumor in patients treated with chemotherapy for metastatic testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs).
What makes a teratoma immature?
An immature teratoma is a teratoma that contains anaplastic immature elements, and is often synonymous with malignant teratoma. A teratoma is a tumor of germ cell origin, containing tissues from more than one germ cell line, It can be ovarian or testicular in its origin. and are almost always benign.
How is immature teratoma treated?
Treatment for an immature teratoma includes both surgery and chemotherapy, Patients with stage Ia grade 1 immature teratoma are usually treated with surgery alone because the prognosis is excellent. When the grade of the tumor advances to 2 or 3, or the stage goes beyond Ia, chemotherapy is usually recommended.
What is the difference between mature and immature teratomas?
Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers. Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma). In contrast, immature teratomas are malignant ovarian tumors.
How do teratomas metastasize?
During and after puberty, all teratomas are regarded as malignant because even mature teratomas (composed of entirely mature histologic elements) can metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or to other systems. Reported rates of metastasis vary from 29-76%.
Is immature teratoma cancerous?
A type of germ cell tumor that is often made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, and bone. Immature teratomas have cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope. They are usually malignant (cancer) and may spread to other parts of the body.
Is immature teratoma curable?
Conclusions: Pure ovarian immature teratoma is a potentially curable disease with a unique natural history. Our data substantiate the hypothesis that low-grade and low-stage tumors do not require chemotherapy, and that a fertility-sparing surgical approach is warranted in all cases.
Can immature teratoma be cured?
Can a mature teratoma metastasis?
Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a metastatic form of a mature teratoma and involves the clinical and radiological enlargement of metastases during or after chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumors .
How do you treat immature teratoma?
Where do teratomas metastasize?
Teratomas are generally considered to be benign in the first stages and patients are generally asymptomatic. Malignant mature cystic teratomas (0.2–2% of cases)  however, have the potential to metastasize to sites such as the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and lung .
Are all immature teratomas malignant?
How fast do immature teratomas grow?
The peak incidence of such tumors is reported in women between the ages of 20–40 years. The disease is characterized by slow growth, with a growth rate of 1.8 mm per year, and when the size of the tumor is <6 cm, it is common for surgeons to utilize a non-surgical treatment (1).
Can teratomas metastasize?